Photo 17.《史记》(Shiji)


《史记》(Records of the Grand Historian) is a monumental work of Chinese historiography written by Sima Qian during the Han dynasty. It is considered one of the most important and influential historical texts in Chinese history. The book covers a wide range of topics, including politics, culture, and society, and provides valuable insights into ancient Chinese history. Studying the “Records of the Grand Historian” is crucial for understanding the development of Chinese civilization and its impact on the world.


  • 《史记》是由司马迁创作的,是中国古代最重要的史书之一。
  • 《史记》按照时间顺序和主题分类组织,包括纪传体和表纪体两种形式。
  • 《史记》对中国古代历史的贡献在于记录了从黄帝到汉武帝的历史,是中国古代历史的重要资料。
  • 《史记》的文学价值和艺术特色在于其精湛的文笔和生动的描写,以及对历史人物的深刻刻画。
  • 《史记》的传播和影响广泛,对中国文化和思想产生了深远的影响,成为中国古代文化的重要组成部分。

Author and Background of the “Records of the Grand Historian”

Sima Qian, the author of the “Records of the Grand Historian,” was a renowned historian and scholar during the Western Han dynasty. He was born into a family of historians and served as an official historian in the imperial court. Sima Qian’s father, Sima Tan, was also a famous historian and served as the court astrologer. Sima Qian inherited his father’s passion for history and dedicated his life to writing a comprehensive historical record.

During his time as an official historian, Sima Qian had access to a vast amount of historical documents and sources. He traveled extensively throughout China to collect information and conducted interviews with people from all walks of life. This firsthand knowledge and meticulous research allowed him to create a detailed and accurate account of ancient Chinese history.

Content and Organizational Structure of the “Records of the Grand Historian”

The “Records of the Grand Historian” is divided into 130 chapters, covering a wide range of topics from ancient legends to contemporary events during Sima Qian’s time. The book is organized chronologically, starting with legendary figures like Huangdi (the Yellow Emperor) and progressing through different dynasties and periods.

Each chapter focuses on a specific historical figure or event, providing detailed biographies and accounts. Sima Qian also includes his own commentary and analysis, offering insights into the motivations and actions of the people he writes about. The book is written in a narrative style, making it accessible and engaging for readers.

Contribution of the “Records of the Grand Historian” to Ancient Chinese History

记录史记对中国古代历史的贡献 数据/指标
记录史记的作者 司马迁
记录史记的完成时间 公元前94年
记录史记的内容 包括了从黄帝到汉武帝时期的历史事件、人物传记、国家制度等
记录史记的价值 为后世研究中国古代历史提供了重要的史料和资料
记录史记的影响 对中国古代历史研究产生了深远的影响,成为中国古代史学的经典之作

The “Records of the Grand Historian” made significant contributions to the understanding of ancient Chinese history. It provided a comprehensive account of the political, social, and cultural developments throughout different dynasties. The book also highlighted the achievements and failures of various rulers and officials, offering valuable lessons for future generations.

One of the most important contributions of the “Records of the Grand Historian” is its documentation of important historical events and figures. Sima Qian covered a wide range of topics, including wars, political intrigues, and cultural advancements. The book provides detailed accounts of famous figures like Emperor Qin Shi Huang, Confucius, and Emperor Wu of Han, shedding light on their contributions to Chinese history.

Literary Value and Artistic Characteristics of the “Records of the Grand Historian”

The “Records of the Grand Historian” is not only a historical record but also a work of literature. Sima Qian employed various literary techniques to make the book engaging and memorable. He used vivid descriptions, dialogues, and anecdotes to bring historical events and figures to life.

The book also exhibits artistic characteristics in its writing style. Sima Qian’s prose is elegant and poetic, with a careful attention to detail. He skillfully weaves together different narratives and perspectives to create a cohesive and compelling narrative.

Dissemination and Influence of the “Records of the Grand Historian”

The “Records of the Grand Historian” had a significant influence on Chinese society and culture. After its completion, the book was widely disseminated throughout China, becoming a staple in libraries and schools. It became an essential reference for scholars and officials, shaping their understanding of Chinese history.

The book also had a profound impact on Chinese literature and culture. Many later works of historical fiction and drama drew inspiration from the “Records of the Grand Historian.” The book’s portrayal of historical figures and events became the basis for legends and myths that continue to resonate in Chinese culture.

Research and Evaluation of the “Records of the Grand Historian”

The “Records of the Grand Historian” has been the subject of extensive research and evaluation. Scholars have analyzed the book’s accuracy, reliability, and biases. While Sima Qian’s work is highly regarded for its meticulous research and comprehensive coverage, some critics argue that it contains inaccuracies and biases.

Different perspectives on the book’s accuracy and reliability exist. Some scholars believe that Sima Qian’s accounts are mostly accurate, while others argue that he may have been influenced by political pressures or personal biases. Despite these debates, the “Records of the Grand Historian” remains an invaluable source for understanding ancient Chinese history.

Biographies of Famous People and Historical Events in the “Records of the Grand Historian”

The “Records of the Grand Historian” contains numerous biographies of famous people and accounts of historical events. These biographies provide valuable insights into the lives and achievements of important figures in Chinese history.

For example, the book includes a detailed biography of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, who unified China and established the Qin dynasty. Sima Qian describes his rise to power, his construction of the Great Wall, and his efforts to standardize laws and writing systems. This biography offers a comprehensive understanding of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s impact on Chinese history.

Influence of the “Records of the Grand Historian” on Chinese Culture and Thought

The “Records of the Grand Historian” had a profound influence on Chinese culture and thought. It shaped the way people understood their history and heritage, providing a sense of continuity and identity.

The book also influenced Chinese philosophy and literature. Many later philosophers and writers drew inspiration from the “Records of the Grand Historian” in their works. The book’s emphasis on moral values, political ethics, and the importance of historical knowledge became central themes in Chinese philosophy.

Historical and Value Perspectives in the “Records of the Grand Historian”

The “Records of the Grand Historian” offers both historical and value perspectives. Sima Qian’s primary goal was to provide an accurate historical record, but he also infused his work with his own values and beliefs.

Sima Qian emphasized the importance of moral values and ethical conduct in his narratives. He praised virtuous rulers and officials while condemning those who abused their power. This value perspective adds depth and meaning to the historical accounts in the book.

In conclusion, the “Records of the Grand Historian” is a monumental work that provides valuable insights into ancient Chinese history. Sima Qian’s meticulous research, engaging writing style, and comprehensive coverage make it an essential resource for understanding Chinese civilization. The book’s influence on Chinese culture, literature, and thought cannot be overstated. Studying the “Records of the Grand Historian” is crucial for anyone interested in Chinese history and culture.


Leave a Reply